Waxwork has experienced a long historical process from a single wax figure to the wax figure art of the present era. According to historical records, as early as the Babylonian period, people mastered the technology of wax portrait. In the 4th century B.C., King Alexander of Macedonian had his wax figure made. In ancient Egypt, wax statues were placed in tombs in funeral ceremonies. In ancient Greece, wax statues were often displayed in religious rituals. In the ancient Rome mask Festival, the aristocratic family also displayed their ancestors' facial masks made of wax and took part in the funeral. In the middle ages, Europe used to use wax statues in witchcraft, and churches also had the wax vows made for believers, and used wax facial masks to commemorate emperors and great men, such as the statue of Anu Jia J DA in Florence, Italy, and became the embodiment of the late emperors and great men. During the Renaissance, the bronze badges made of lost wax were used. Antonio abandio was a famous wax figure artist at that time. From the 17th to 18th century, colored wax relief was popular in Spain and Italy. At the same time, wax making was also extended to medicine. Gaetano Julio zunbo, a Sicilian, cooperated with French surgeon desnozzi to make a wax figure of human anatomy. During this period, Britain, France, Germany and other European countries have made many exquisite wax figures.
The simulation effect of wax figure promotes the development of this art. In 1770, the first temporary wax exhibition hall was opened in Paris, France. The wax figures appeared in a fixed display form. In 1776, the Swiss wax artist kurtius temporarily exhibited the colorful wax figures of royal members at the palace of Versailles in Paris, France. It was full of emotion, scenery and vividness. In 1802, Marie glautz (that is, Mrs. tussault's name before marriage) collected and sculpted the heads of famous figures at that time by using the basic conditions of learning art with coultius, an expert in medical anatomy waxwork when she was young. Especially during the period of the French Revolution, she even collected the head sculpture images with blood under the guillotine. She immigrated from France to England and toured on the British Isles He lived in London for nearly 33 years. In 1835, Madame Tussaud introduced this art from France to England, and established a permanent "Madame Tussauds Museum". In 1880, French journalist Arthur Meyer, together with the famous painter and sculptor Alfred grewan, founded the "Wax Museum of grewan Museum" in Paris, France. In the next hundred years, there were the Victoria wax museum in Canada, the sarankster wax museum in Pennsylvania, etc. The establishment of the wax sculpture art museum attracts more and more tourists to appreciate the wax figure, appreciate the history, cherish the reality, and "close" contact with the figures they advocate. This makes the waxwork art tend to be popular and simulation.
Perhaps it is due to the strong simulation and infection of wax figure art, or the existence of lost wax casting technology in China 2500 years ago, or the fact that people in modern cultural life are more intuitive and entertaining. After this art was introduced into China, it developed in accordance with the changes of national cultural consciousness, concept, belief, preference, demand and economic interests.
After the May 4th Movement in 1919, Mr. Cheng Zhenxia, a scholar of ancient costume research in China, was inspired by the Western wax museum. He planned to introduce China's clothing culture to visitors at home and abroad by using life size wax figures wearing costumes of different dynasties. In 1957, Mr. Cheng Zhenxia set up a special hall to display wax costume works in Guangzhou Cultural Park. In the 1930s, there were wax statues of Confucius in the Confucius Temple in Shandong Province. In 1990, Mr. Chen Shukai, a Hong Kong industrialist, raised funds, and Mr. Zhang Shouxiang founded a small-scale "Beijing wax museum". Later, the "Xi'an Incident wax museum", "Xi'an Qin emperor wax museum", "Beijing Ming emperor wax museum", "Dalian Jinshi wax museum", as well as museums and memorials have also used wax figure art to show history. These waxwork exhibitions reflect the moment of a certain culture and historical content with different themes. In 2002, the national wax sculpture art museum, which represents the art level of China's wax figure, is professional, large-scale, authoritative, educational and appreciative, and combines wax figures with cultural relics and objects.
The display principles of the wax figure art gallery of the National Museum of China are as follows: to display wax figures of Chinese figures, with a small number of wax figures of foreign figures; to display wax figures of outstanding figures with appropriate amount of wax figures of essential negative figures; to display wax figures of modern and Contemporary figures with a small number of ancient figures; and; It mainly displays realistic figures wax figures, supplemented by a small number of scene figures. Meanwhile, the classic historical stories and scenes, backgrounds, cultural relics and props related to wax figures are displayed accordingly.