工有品   匠致远

蜡像制作的起源

2020-12-03 14:36

蜡像从单一的用蜡制像发展到当今时代的蜡像艺术,经历了漫长的历史过程。据史料记载,早在古巴比伦时期人们就掌握了蜡制人像技术。公元前4世纪,马其顿国王亚历山大大帝曾请人为他做过蜡像。古埃及在殡葬仪式中曾把蜡制神像安放在墓穴里。古希腊在宗教礼仪上常有蜡制神像陈列其中。古罗马面膜节,贵族家庭还将蜡制成的祖先面膜陈列出来或参加出殡。到了中世纪,欧洲曾将蜡像用于巫术,教堂里也已经有了为教徒们制作的还愿蜡像,并用蜡制面膜来纪念帝王和伟人,如意大利佛罗伦萨的阿努佳斯达教会内的圣像,成为已故帝王和伟人的化身。文艺复兴时期,有用失蜡法制成的青铜徽章像,安东尼奥.阿邦迪奥是当时享有盛誉的蜡像艺人。17至18世纪,西班牙、意大利的彩色蜡塑浮雕风行一时,同时蜡像制作还推广到医学上,西西里人加埃塔诺.朱里奥.尊博曾与法国外科医生德斯诺琪合作制成人体解剖蜡像。在此期间,英国、法国、德国等一些欧洲国家,先后制作了许多精巧蜡像。

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Waxwork has experienced a long historical process from a single wax figure to the wax figure art of the present era. According to historical records, as early as the Babylonian period, people mastered the technology of wax portrait. In the 4th century B.C., King Alexander of Macedonian had his wax figure made. In ancient Egypt, wax statues were placed in tombs in funeral ceremonies. In ancient Greece, wax statues were often displayed in religious rituals. In the ancient Rome mask Festival, the aristocratic family also displayed their ancestors' facial masks made of wax and took part in the funeral. In the middle ages, Europe used to use wax statues in witchcraft, and churches also had the wax vows made for believers, and used wax facial masks to commemorate emperors and great men, such as the statue of Anu Jia J DA in Florence, Italy, and became the embodiment of the late emperors and great men. During the Renaissance, the bronze badges made of lost wax were used. Antonio abandio was a famous wax figure artist at that time. From the 17th to 18th century, colored wax relief was popular in Spain and Italy. At the same time, wax making was also extended to medicine. Gaetano Julio zunbo, a Sicilian, cooperated with French surgeon desnozzi to make a wax figure of human anatomy. During this period, Britain, France, Germany and other European countries have made many exquisite wax figures.

蜡像的仿真效果,推动了这门艺术的发展。1770年,在法国巴黎开办了第一个临时性的蜡像展馆,蜡像以一种固定的展示形式出现。1776年,瑞士蜡像艺术家库尔提乌斯,在法国巴黎的凡尔赛宫临时性展出了皇家成员大型宫廷舞会上多姿多彩的蜡像,有情有景,栩栩如生。1802年,玛丽.格劳舒尔茨(即杜莎夫人婚前名)利用年轻时与制作医学解剖蜡像的专家库尔提乌斯学艺的基础条件,收集和雕塑了当时著名人物的头像,特别是在法国大革命时期,她甚至收集了断头台下带血的人头塑成像,从法国移居到英国,在英伦三岛巡回展出,漂泊近33年,最终定居英国伦敦。1835年,杜莎夫人将这门艺术从法国传入英国,建立起永久性的“杜莎夫人蜡像馆”。1880年,法国记者阿瑟梅耶,与著名画家、雕塑家阿尔佛莱德.格雷万一起,在法国巴黎创办了“格雷万博物馆蜡像馆”。以后的百余年中,又出现了加拿大的维多利亚蜡像馆,美国宾夕法尼亚州的萨兰开斯特蜡像馆等等。蜡像艺术馆的建立,吸引着越来越多的游客欣赏蜡像,感悟历史、珍视现实,与自己崇尚的人物“近距离”接触。这使蜡像这门艺术趋于大众化、仿真化。

The simulation effect of wax figure promotes the development of this art. In 1770, the first temporary wax exhibition hall was opened in Paris, France. The wax figures appeared in a fixed display form. In 1776, the Swiss wax artist kurtius temporarily exhibited the colorful wax figures of royal members at the palace of Versailles in Paris, France. It was full of emotion, scenery and vividness. In 1802, Marie glautz (that is, Mrs. tussault's name before marriage) collected and sculpted the heads of famous figures at that time by using the basic conditions of learning art with coultius, an expert in medical anatomy waxwork when she was young. Especially during the period of the French Revolution, she even collected the head sculpture images with blood under the guillotine. She immigrated from France to England and toured on the British Isles He lived in London for nearly 33 years. In 1835, Madame Tussaud introduced this art from France to England, and established a permanent "Madame Tussauds Museum". In 1880, French journalist Arthur Meyer, together with the famous painter and sculptor Alfred grewan, founded the "Wax Museum of grewan Museum" in Paris, France. In the next hundred years, there were the Victoria wax museum in Canada, the sarankster wax museum in Pennsylvania, etc. The establishment of the wax sculpture art museum attracts more and more tourists to appreciate the wax figure, appreciate the history, cherish the reality, and "close" contact with the figures they advocate. This makes the waxwork art tend to be popular and simulation.

或许是源于蜡像艺术的仿真感染性强,或许是中国早在2500年以前就存在失蜡铸造工艺,或许是现代的文化生活中人们更加追寻直观和寓教于乐,这门艺术传入中国后,便因循着民族文化的意识、观念、信仰、喜好、需求和经济利益的变化而发展。

Perhaps it is due to the strong simulation and infection of wax figure art, or the existence of lost wax casting technology in China 2500 years ago, or the fact that people in modern cultural life are more intuitive and entertaining. After this art was introduced into China, it developed in accordance with the changes of national cultural consciousness, concept, belief, preference, demand and economic interests.

1919年五四运动后,我国古代服饰的研究学者程枕霞先生,受到西方蜡像馆的启示,拟用真人大小的蜡人穿着历代服饰,向国内外参观者介绍我国的服饰文化;1957年程枕霞先生在广州文化公园设专厅展示蜡像服饰作品。20世纪30年代,山东孔庙曾塑有孔子蜡像;1990年由香港实业家陈树锴先生集资,张守祥先生创办了小有规模的“北京蜡像馆”。随后,出现了“西安事变蜡像馆”、“西安秦皇蜡像馆”、“北京明皇蜡像宫”、“大连金石蜡像馆”以及博物馆、纪念馆也纷纷用蜡像艺术展现历史,这些蜡像展都以不同的题材反映了某种文化和历史内容的瞬间。2002年,代表着中国蜡像艺术水平,专业的、具有较大规模的、权威的、教育性与欣赏性为一体的,蜡像人物与文物、实物相结合的国家级蜡像艺术馆在中国国家博物馆诞生。

After the May 4th Movement in 1919, Mr. Cheng Zhenxia, a scholar of ancient costume research in China, was inspired by the Western wax museum. He planned to introduce China's clothing culture to visitors at home and abroad by using life size wax figures wearing costumes of different dynasties. In 1957, Mr. Cheng Zhenxia set up a special hall to display wax costume works in Guangzhou Cultural Park. In the 1930s, there were wax statues of Confucius in the Confucius Temple in Shandong Province. In 1990, Mr. Chen Shukai, a Hong Kong industrialist, raised funds, and Mr. Zhang Shouxiang founded a small-scale "Beijing wax museum". Later, the "Xi'an Incident wax museum", "Xi'an Qin emperor wax museum", "Beijing Ming emperor wax museum", "Dalian Jinshi wax museum", as well as museums and memorials have also used wax figure art to show history. These waxwork exhibitions reflect the moment of a certain culture and historical content with different themes. In 2002, the national wax sculpture art museum, which represents the art level of China's wax figure, is professional, large-scale, authoritative, educational and appreciative, and combines wax figures with cultural relics and objects.

中国国家博物馆蜡像艺术馆的陈列原则:以展示中国人物蜡像为主,辅之少量的外国人物蜡像;以展示杰出人物蜡像为主,适量展出必不可少的反面人物的蜡像;以展示近现代人物蜡像为主,辅之少量的古代人物蜡像;以展示写实人物蜡像为主,辅之少量的情景人物蜡像。同时,相应地展示与蜡像人物有关的经典历史故事和场景、背景、文物、道具等。

The display principles of the wax figure art gallery of the National Museum of China are as follows: to display wax figures of Chinese figures, with a small number of wax figures of foreign figures; to display wax figures of outstanding figures with appropriate amount of wax figures of essential negative figures; to display wax figures of modern and Contemporary figures with a small number of ancient figures; and; It mainly displays realistic figures wax figures, supplemented by a small number of scene figures. Meanwhile, the classic historical stories and scenes, backgrounds, cultural relics and props related to wax figures are displayed accordingly.